Working of a transformer is completely based on the insulating material of the device, which provides durability and stability. The proper utilization of the insulating materials ensures the seamless working of the device to give high results expected in the industries for the certain applications. There are three types of insulating materials present in the transformer that are Transformer Oil, Insulating Paper, and Press Board; out of them transformer oil has the key role in the process of insulation.
Let’s Discuss These Three Elements In Brief:-
Transformer Oil – As said above it is the core of the insulation process in order to determine the life and satisfactory operation. The material performs two functions i.e. provides better insulation in the combination of all the other materials used in coils and conductors. Another function is acting as a coolant to expel heat from the windings and the cores. The oil is the balanced blend of paraffins, aromatics, olefins, and naphthenes. Remember well, when the oil is containing moisture or suspended particles, you need to replace it with the fresh one as soon as possible. For this, you are required to inspect the oil frequently.
Insulating Paper – Made with the vegetable fibers consisting cellulose, the insulating paper has two properties:-
- Grammage – Basically, it is the ratio of mass to the area that influences most of the electrical and mechanical properties.
- Density – The density of the paper matters most and it should be free from the moisture content. Since the moisture affects the dielectric properties of the paper, it should not exceed more than 8%. As the moisture take place with the usage, you should be careful while using the device and check back for the moisture content regularly. Another influencing thing is the right balance of oil and water to cut down the loss. For better dielectric strength, oil should be more in the ratio than the water.
Press Board – Again made with the vegetable fibers and containing cellulose, the board should be thick as per the requirement and originally made. The highly chemical purity of the board indicates that it is suitable for the insulation material in the transformer. The main aim of using these boards is to provide high voltage and current rating to the device. Some of the important properties of the material include dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, dimensional stability, dielectric constant, and physical strength. They are lightweight and are competent to bear high temperature.